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Data encryption: concept, types and importance


Since the emergence of the need for people to exchange messages among themselves, their need has arisen to encrypt the information contained within them, and therefore the data encryption procedure is not considered a new procedure at all, as it has existed since the days of paper and oral correspondence.

The concept of "Data Encryption":


Data Encryption can be defined as converting data from its readable form to an unreadable encoded form.


Encryption ensures that data is protected from being stolen, or viewed by intruders, enemies, or people with disruptive tendencies and intent who like to harm others.


The term data encryption has moved to information transmitted on the Internet, and has become the mainstay of messaging operations over the Internet; As it has become a major conduit for all human communication processes that involve a great deal of confidentiality and privacy.


The concept of using data encryption involves securing it by individuals and organizations that attempt to breach users' information transmitted between browsers and servers, which may contain personal or banking data related to payments and bank transfers.


Encryption algorithms are used in data encryption processes, programs that depend on certain algorithms in encoding operations, and the encryption schemes in these algorithms are developed periodically to make penetration impossible and require huge computing capabilities.

How does Data Encryption work?


The data encryption process is carried out in the stage prior to its transmission over the Internet; User data should not cross the Internet and network devices in its readable form; In order to protect it from hackers; Therefore, users should install specialized applications or software to ensure that data is transmitted securely from source to destination.


The encryption mechanism is by converting the readable text into a form that is unreadable to humans, and the text in this case is called "ciphertext", and this is through the use of special keys for the encryption process, whose function is to convert the readable data into random codes that are incomprehensible to the human being.


These keys are a set of mathematical values ​​that are agreed upon between the two parties to the correspondence; i.e. between sender and receiver; The user sends the encryption key along with the ciphertext, then the receiving end is decrypted with the same key, and the data returns to its readable form.


The security of the encryption process is related to the complexity of the encryption key. The more complex the key, the more complex the encryption process is, and thus the chances of hacker attacks being able to decode, re-convert random codes into their readable form, and obtain information that they should not have the ability to know and access.


Data encryption is also used to encrypt users' passwords, by hashing passwords and converting them into a random form that is difficult for hackers to guess.

What are the most common encryption techniques?


Many encryption techniques have spread, and perhaps the most famous of them are symmetric encryption and asymmetric encryption, and the two techniques differ in the way they use the encryption key in the encryption and decryption processes.

1. Method of data encryption using symmetric encryption keys:


or a symmetric encryption method in which the same encryption key is used at both ends of the messaging; i.e. in the encryption process and decryption process; Therefore it is called a "private key", and it is the method most preferred by closed systems and individual users.


This type of encryption requires sending the key to the receiving end, and it is faster compared to other encryption methods, but it is easier to penetrate by hackers, and less resistant to external attacks.

2. Data encryption method using asymmetric encryption keys:


or the asymmetric encryption method, which uses two keys in encryption operations; A public key and a private key, the two keys are large numbers bound together by a certain algorithm; But they are not asymmetric, hence the name asymmetric pattern.


The private key is in the possession of the sending owner exclusively, who uses it to encrypt the transmitted data, and the public key is shared with exclusive recipients or with the public in general, in order to decrypt the transmitted data.

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